1954-Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is published in his book Motivation and personality. This provides a frame work for gaining employees’ commitment.
Peter Drucker writes The Practice of Management and introduces the 5 basic roles of managers. He writes: The first question is discussing organization structure must be: What is our business and what should be? Organization must be designed so as to make possible the attainment of objectives of the business for five, ten, fifteen years hence.
1959-Hygiene and Motivational Factors
Frederick Hezberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, expect it more closely related to work. Hygiene must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers.
In the 1950s and 1960s a new, integrated approach originated as Organization Development (OD), the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels (group, intergroup, and total organization) to bring about planned change.
1960-Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory X principles influence the design and implementation of personnel policies and practices.
Late 1960s- Action Learning
An unheralded British academic was invited to try out his theories in Belgium-It led to an upturn in the Belgian economy. Unless your ideas are ridiculed by experts they are worth nothing, says the British academy Reg Revens, creator of action learning:
L=P+Q (L) Learning occurs through a combination of programmed knowledge (P) and the ability to ask insightful questions (Q)
Note that his work has had little impact on this side of the ocean, although it remains one of the best ways to learn to improve an organization.
Robert Blake and James Mouton develop a management model that conceptualizes management styles and relations. Their grid uses two axis. Concern for people is plotted using the vertical axis and concern for task is long the horizontal axis. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity.
1978- Performance Technology
Tom Gilbert publishes Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. It describes the behavioral-engineering model which become the bible of performance technology. Gilbert wrote that accomplishment specification is the only logical way to define performance requirements. Accomplishments are the best starting points for developing performance standards. In addition, accomplishments are the best tools for the development of performance-based job description as they allow management to describe the measurement that is important to the organization, specific to the position and observable.
McKinsey’s John Larson asks colleague Tom Peter to step in at the last minute and make a presentation that leads to In Search of Excellence. Thus Tom Peters spawns the birth of the management guru business.
Peter Sange popularized the learning organization in the fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. He describes the organization as an organism with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape its own future. A learning organization with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape its own future. A learning organization is any organization (e.g. school, business, government agency) that understands itself as a complex, organic system that has a vision purpose. It uses feedback systems and alignment mechanisms to achieve its goals. It values teams and leadership throughout the ranks. He called for five disciplines:
1. System Thinking
2. Personal Mastery
3. Mental Models
4. Shared Vision
5. Team Learning
On December 11, 1995 a fire burned most of Malden Mills to the ground and put 3,000 people out of work. Most of the 3,000 thought they were out of work permanently. CEO Aaron Fuerstein says: This is not end-He spent millions keeping all 3,000 employees on the payroll with full benefits for 3 months until he could get another factory up and running. Why? He answers, the fundamental difference is that I consider our workers an asset, not an expense.